Frequently Asked Questions

What is GTO?
GTO stands for game theory optimal. It's the strategy to play which prevents anyone from exploiting you (even if they know what strategy you're using), i.e. the ultimate defense.

A simple example is if you were playing competitive rock-paper-scissors. The GTO strategy is 33.3% rock, 33.3% paper, 33.3% scissors. If you do anything else as your strategy, you open yourself up to getting exploited. You can extend this to more complicated games like poker, which has a much more complicated GTO strategy.

How many players are there per hand in each module?
HU is 2 players. Spin is 3 players. Tourneys are mostly 9max with some 6max modules as well. NL Cash games are mostly 6max with some 9max. PLO is 6max. We are constantly adding new modules, feel free to contact us if the module type you're looking for is not available.
What raise sizes are used in each module?
For NL cash games, there are a wide range of RFI (raise first-in), 3-bet, and 4-bet sizes used in the different modules to cover the most common sizes seen in practice. Most RFI sizes are either 2.2 or 2.5bb for cash games (with 3bets usually around 3-3.5x IP and 4-5x OOP). There are also a wide range of different SB strategies (fold/2.5x, fold/3x, limp/3x, limp/4x).

For Tournament modules, the RFI ranges from 2-2.5bb with 3bet and 4bet sizes depending on the stack size. With the shorter stack sizes, smaller 3bet or 4bet sizes are chosen to always leave raise-fold as a reasonable option for the solver.

When A and B versions of a module exist, they use different sizings for raises/3bets/4bets/etc.

The PLO modules use pot-sized raises. PLO HU A uses a raise/fold strategy from the SB. PLO HU B uses a limp/raise/fold strategy from the SB.

What is RNG Mode?
In the default mode (RNG off), your goal is to pick the action that you should take most often.

In RNG mode, each question comes with a randomly generated number from 0-100. The higher the number, the more you should lean towards the more aggressive action.

For example: suppose the optimal strategy is 30% Fold, 25% Call, 45% Raise. In the default mode, the correct answer is Raise since that has the highest %. In RNG mode, if the RNG is < 30, then the correct answer is Fold. If the RNG is between 30 and 55 the correct answer is Call. If the RNG is > 55 (30+25), then the correct answer is Raise. This mode helps you to implement the mixed strategies with the right frequencies.

Are there any rake assumptions?
There are both rake and no-rake modules for NL and PLO. Tournament (ante) modules do not have rake.

For 6-max PLO: the PLO (micro) rake levels are 4.5% with a 10bb cap (~$10 PLO). The PLO (mid) rake levels are 5% with a 2.5bb cap (~$100 PLO). The PLO (high) rake levels are 5% with a 0.6bb cap (~$500 PLO).

For HU PLO: the PLO (mid) rake levels are 5% with a 0.625 cap (~$200 PLO). The PLO (high) rake levels are 5% with a 0.3bb cap (~$500 PLO).

There are both rake and no-rake NL cash game modules. NL 50 (midA) uses 5%, 6bb cap. NL 50 (midB) uses 5%, 3bb cap, with preflop 3bets also raked. NL 50 (midC) uses 5%, 2.5bb cap. NL 50 (high) uses 3%, 0.83bb cap. NL 100 (midA) uses rake of 5% up to a 2.5bb cap (~$100 NL) and NL 100 (midB) and (midC) has rake of 5% up to a 3bb cap with preflop 3bets+ also raked (the difference is midB is 3bet/fold whereas midC allows cold-calls in all positions). NL 100 (midD) is 5% up to 3bb cap (similar to midA but with no cold-calling except from the big blind). NL 100 (high) is 5% up to 0.75bb cap. HU 100 (midA) uses 5% with a 1.5bb cap. HU 100 (midB) uses 5% with a 0.625bb cap. HU 100 (midC) uses 3% with a 0.375bb cap.

In simulations with rake, the solver naturally assumes all other players are also rake-aware (folding when they should, cold-calling less, etc). For example, in a raked NL game, the solver will open wider in earlier positions and prefer opening hands like A5o (better for blocking our opponent's 3-bet range) over hands like 65s (better for postflop play/board coverage). The solver will also 3bet hands which block our opponent's 4-bet range more heavily (as the solver assumes that the opponent will be 4-betting our 3-bets more often).

If players in your game are not adjusting accordingly (i.e. too much cold calling with not enough 3-betting or 4-betting), then you might make adjustments such as 3-betting a more linear range or opening hands with better postflop playability (or playing tighter than the RFI ranges suggest). In general, we would recommend starting with no-rake ranges to have a good baseline/fundamental strategy and then explore the differences in raked simulations to see what deviations are made when there is rake.

How were these ranges generated?
These ranges were generated using GTO solvers. The solvers used include MonkerSolver and private proprietary solvers, whichever provides the most state-of-the-art solutions.
What is the cancellation policy?
You can cancel your membership at anytime and your membership will expire at the end of the membership period.
What payment options do you offer?
We accept Paypal. We also accept all major credit cards through our payment processor Stripe which handles all sensitive credit card information directly.
Can you view the ranges for a given situation?
Yes, we now have two ways to view and study ranges. Either directly in the question (as seen below on the left) or through our Range Navigator (on the right), which allows you to quickly query any situation.


When viewing ranges, what is the difference between Abs% and Rel%?
By default, the ranges show a % of all your starting hands that now take that action. For example, facing an open from the CO in the BB with A5s, one strategy is to call 55% of the time, 3-bet (planning to 5-bet shove) 29% of the time, and 3-bet (planning to call a 4-bet) 16% of the time. When viewing the range when facing a 4-bet, the Abs% view (default) will show A5s at 29%. The Rel% view will show A5s at 64%. i.e. once you've decided to 3-bet A5s and are facing a 4-bet, you should now shove 64% of the time.
In a particular HU module, the range when facing a Raise (or 3-bet) looks strange, what's wrong?
In most HU modules, the SB has an open limping option. Thus if you filter for "Facing Raise", make sure you distinguish between when the BB faces a raise after the SB open and when the SB faces a raise after open limiping. Similarly when facing a 3-bet, there are two different "Facing 3-bet" scenarios in many of the HU modules. The green circle refers to our position and the orange circle is the villian's position.
How can I find out the previous actions for a given question?
This is best explained with an example:


We (in green) opened to 2.5x and villain (in orange) 3bet to 6x.

Now our options are to fold (and lose the 2.5x we've put into the hand), call the raise of 6, or go all-in for 25.

A more complicated example:


Call 37.5 implies that the villain's 4bet size is to 37.5x.

Fold 12 implies that our previous raise was to 12x.

So we can infer that the hand began with villian opening. Then we 3bet to 12x. Now villain 4bets to 37.5x and the action is on us. We can either fold (and lose the 12 we've put into the pot already), call the 37.5, or go all-in for 100.

At the moment you can assume all scenarios involve at most two players (with everyone else folding). We plan to add more multiway scenarios in the future.

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